Taxonomy on Motivational Therories by Annette Buchanan-Phillips IRN:4402180549 I/O Psy700
Dr.Marcos A. Carreras, Instructing
Name of Theory:Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs
Germinal Author: Abraham Maslow
APA Reference: Encarta Encyclopedia
APA Reference: Human Relations:
Description & Analysis: Human needs are listed and in ascending order of priority. The effects of poverty, and emotional disorders keep people around the lower strata; and will not allow them to reach self actualization; and beyond to Self Transcendance. Chart is courtesy of www.Wikipedia.org
The ERG theory was developed by Clayton Alderfer, and it builds upon the theoretical work of Abraham Maslow in that it condenses his 5 needs to three needs categories. While Maslow segments his lower needs composed of Physiological, Safety, and Love or Belonging; he calls Esteem and Self Actualization as higher needs.
Alderfer labels his three needs categories as Existence needs, Relatedness needs, and Growth needs. Existence needs are life support and maintenace; such as food, shelter, air and water which also coorespond to Maslow's lowest level of the pyramid. They are the need for physiological well being, basic subsistence and homeostasis. They support and sustain life, more than lifestyle and culture.
Relatedness needs take in the desires forsatisying interpersonal relationships and society. Relatedness supports the emotional well being needs. Natural affection and feelings of belonging, family and employment are sustenance issues as they pertain to resources, support and social groups. Those issues are the segway to satisfying the Growth needs of an individual or an organization. In Maslow's Hierarchy the ERG Theory's "Relatedness Needs" combines Safety and Love and Belonging.
Growth needs satisfy a human being's and or an organization's need for growth and personal development and acheivement. Though Growth needs seem to be intrinsic and inconsequential to some; they are essential to emotional health, and organizational health and profitability. Stagnation, or inability to thrive means the failure of the organization and is an indicator that frustration prevented Growth Needs from being satisfied.
"Growth Needs" is where Maslow's Self Actualization fails to correspond to ERG theory. The "Unique Frustration-Regression" syndtrome is so named because the phenomenon of being frustrated in Growth and Development may, and often does, effect every level of needs satisaction and will precipitate the Regression to basic "Flight or Fight" adrenalin reactions; or worse "kill or be killed" and "Survival of the Fittest" Darwinian and 'Lord of the Flies' mentality.
In a worse case scenario; a nightmare "psy-op" is a self actualization intervention using the "Unique Frustration-Regression" of ERG theory. Further, ERG theory suggests that responses may become co-morbid; and intermingle. The true test of how well a person or an organization has become self actualized; or will become stable, and maintain that stability; is whether it can weather an ERG theory "Unique Frustration-Regression" storm.
To not fall into the criminal or poverty pitfall, requires internal survivalist cognitive wiring. That capability can be the difference in the results being a negative or positive outcome. Failing to draw upon every emotional resource within oneself, can mean emotional, business or economic catastrophe. When outside resources are denied to you, survival denotes emotional strength and managerial skill. That skill is flexibility, stability, and resourcefulness; which is the winning edge.
In the context of employment ERG theory illustrates too well, "the Set up to Fail" management style of overly competitive middle management who fail to acknowlege and reward due to their own frustration and insecurity, or even worse, are satisfied better in the sabotage of corporate goals and objectives, by thwarting solutions and positive outcomes.
The "Need for Acheivement Theory": is an actual theoretical category of Assessment on the Thematic Apperception Test devised by Dr. David I. McClelland; the nACH variable. It connotes a desire to acheive in a work or personal situation, via innovation, or improving upon processes, equipment, or methods to acheive greater efficiency or profits. The mastery of complex tasks can open the door to other opportunity.
Many times there is a payoff for suggestions, ideas, and excellent performance; as a motivator to actually "think" on the job. The reward may be money, branding indentifiers, belonging incentives and upward mobilization opportunities. Many times, the employer retains all propritary rights to that which is created in the course of or context of employment.
Motivator-Hygiene Theory: refers to the work of Dr. Frederick Herzberg, also known as the two-factor theory that attempts to explain the reasons and motivation for job satisfaction, and or dissatisfaction.. The "Motivator" refers to the conditions, sources, and or incentives that lead to feelings of "Job Satisfaction". The "Hygiene" refers to the factors or sources, that pertain to feelings of "Job Dissatisfaction."
This two-factor theory is subjective and qualitative. However, a correlation of pay rates and job satisfaction was established. Those who enjoy higher pay rates expressed more job satisfaction than those who are paid less. The pay rate is commensurate and equated with value to the organization, and social strata is tied to economic rewards, and buying power.
To find a Maslow or ERG correlation would make higher pay to Higher placement on the Pyramid, and less debilitation from "Unique Frustration-Regression", imposition.
"Job Charcteristics theory" is another aspect of Herzberg's work contending that the charcteristics of a job, its responsibility, and status is directly correlated to job value or pay rates and perks. " If you want people to do a better job; make the job better." (Herzberg) Therefore, Job Characteristics are directly proportional to job satisfaction; by its value, status and pay rate, and benefits; and consequential image and societal perception. People show greater deference to the Executive than the Janitor; unless they own the company, as in the case of small business.
Multi-disciplinary Approach by Campion, utilizes Motivational theory, tailored to the Managemnent by Objectives model. It may coordinate and incoporate each type of Motivational theory approach to acheive objectives. Those approaches may correspond to Job characteristic and Performance strata. The highest paid executive needs a different motivational approach than the least paid, new, less educated or experienced employee.
Equity Theory: J. Stacy Adams wrote that people try to equate the effort they put into their work with what equity they feel in doing it. If they feel they are underpaid or unequally with others for the same work; they slack off in efforts and feel better. If they feel they are overly paid and unequal with others engaged in the same work, they increase their efforts and output to ease the cognitive dissonance of the perceived inequity. Therefore people need to believe that they are being paid and treated equitablly in their work, in order to experience Job satisfaction; or transversely, dissatisfaction.
Expectancy Theory: by Victor Vroom is also tied to the Decision tree; in that what people expect to gain from an activity as a motivator. People engage in that which they expect rewards from. If they do not expect rewards they do not engage, in it. Motivation= Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence (value of rewards attached to the efforts)
Goal Setting Theory: Is the result of the study conducted by Stajkovic, Locke, & Blair. They concluded that Conscious and subconscious goals interact to Motivate people. Those goals, need to be specific, have definite, tasks, performance guidelines, benchmarks, and feedback and be rewarded equitably. The time specified for completion, performance objectives and measurable results make for Management by Objectives to acheive goals successfully. Goal setting theory is an integration of motivators in order to develop a process and system for organizational and personal success.
Control Theory: by Travis Herschi, revolves around Perspectives of Human Natutre. It is specifically the Nonconformist Perspective in the biological Theories of Crime. In the undisciplined person, there is a very loose identification with Societal Norms, and the individual seeks to exhibit no controls. If they engage in Criminal Behavior they become forced into society's control systems. Otherwise, they may separate themselves from the mainstream, in order to feel free of control.
Hunt, James G., Osborn, Richard N., & schemmerhorn, John R.: Organizational Behavior, 10th Edition. Chapter 5. Motivation Theories: Acheivement requires effort. John Wiley & Sons:2008.
Bartol, Anne M. & Curt R.: Criminal Behavior A Psychsocial Approach. 2008: Pearson Education, Inc.; Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Blair, Eden S. Blair, Locke, Edwin A. & Stajkovic, Alexander D.:Journal of Applied Psychology, 2008.
Assignment 1: Research Question
I/O Psych700: Dr. Marcos Carreras, Professor
I. Based on your reading, what are some of the organization development techniques, or interventions for bringing about change? II. What role does the Industrial/ Organizational Psychologist play in managing change in the organization?
Organizational Development Techniques or Interventions for bringing about Change
The “Open Systems” model captures the context in which certain behaviors occur, what precipitates them and the scope and parameters that shape them. In ”Eysenck’s dichotomy, “ Introversion indicates the effects of being overly controlled. The Extroversion is indicative of being under controlled. Both personality types are the result of restriction.
According to Magargee, “the limitations of over controlling, crosses the line into the extreme opposite in behaviors. Such “Mind Control” candidates like those exhibiting the effects of over and or under controlling restricted existence, or cultures; are primed for extreme pendulum swing behaviors.
I dubbed them: “the Terrorist Selective Service”; because the greater restrictive culture is directly proportional to the more extreme brutality in reactionary violence. They are the ones that snapped; who seemed so nice, and subdued. In other words, the overly controlled introvert is unlikely to react violently, unless the subject of long term provocation and torment has evoked such a snap of mind to exhibit an extreme violent reaction once. The ultimate extreme act of violence is usually without thought of the outcomes or the ever-after.
The change was constructed, and behavior elicited by design; with an organizational construct of negative reinforcements toward a specific target demographic. Industrial & Organizational Psychologists are in the position to screen these from the workplace; and hopefully assess to identify those at risk for sudden and extreme violence.
Interface of individuals to their Environments
The environment lends itself to assist individuals in their physical tasks, and learning required to perform job tasks. In the Hawthorne Effect experiments; variations in light intensity and brightness was measured in proportion to pieces and work output. Lights had an effect emotionally on the workers, as well. The variable lead to the Seasonal Affective Disorder diagnosis in which the lessening of sunlight hours contributes to a depressive reaction in some people. ( DSM- IV )
Assessments for aptitude, and cognitive ability can be mobility and retention indicators, with some companies. There is a five year predictive indicator amongst those who are motivated to succeed.
The three most important measures are values, personality and attitude; for selection and attrition and upward or lateral mobility. Skills enhancement efforts can raise the quality of the employees within an organization.
All of the aptitude, cognitive ability, and personality assessments come under the Industrial and Organizational Psychology techniques that shape Corporate-culture. Most branding, incentives, and selection tasks are determined by the scores gathered in tests, performance measures, and interviews. Emotional assistance and support counseling are also among the tools of the Industrial & Organizational Psychologists.
Person to Organization Fit Model
“Gustafson & Mumford; (1995) found that individual personality predicted job satisfaction and performance better when the type of job situation was taken into account supporting a Personal-Organizational fit interpretation.”
The Person to Organization model suggests that a fit between an applicant’s personal characteristics, and attributes of the organization, contributes in important ways to individual performance and retention, as well as to organizational effectiveness.
Attraction, selection, and attrition model, (Schneider, 1987) utilizes learning theory; “similarities attract and attrition is the result of a gravitational hypothesis. Cognitive ability is directly proportional to upward mobility; and a five year predictor of mobility.”
In Gough’s study (1957); “Aptitude, treatment, Interactions are relevant to a successful integration into a company’s culture.
“Aptitude represents individual differences, characteristics of people and treatment is broadly defined as situations, encountered by people, (job characteristics, working conditions, supervision, performance goals, etcetera). “
John Campbell (1999) argues that all interactions and Industrial & Organizational Psychology treatments revolve around the qualities of the people in the group. The more homogenous the group; the better the group will function. People who share similar values, attitudes and personalities will work well together. This phenomenon is called “homogeneity.”
Yet no company wants to strive for a “Stepford Wife” staff, of cookie cutter employees, devoid of individuality. Instead, the effective fit is complementary differences. The most creativity is expressed as functional innovation of familiar systems and processes; that will enhance the group’s marketability and profits, in the employment situation.
That type of Corporate Identification; is the result of acculturation, branding, incentives, rewards, and mobility within the context of skills and achievement recognition. Behavioral restrictions are for cultural enhancement, but not stifling or rewarding negative values or images. Every positive reward benchmark is meant to inspire, and motivate while fostering the sense of belonging.
The Role of the Industrial & Organizational Psychologist in Managing Change
The Industrial & Organizational Psychologist helps to establish behavioral parameters for the company or group. The employee or member handbook of educational objectives and goals are the culmination of the work of the Human Resources Director and Industrial & Organizational Psychologists.
Industrial & Organizational Psychologists utilize learning and behavioral psychology theory to assess, predict, prevent and attribute a person to organizational fit. Selection criteria and methods, and methods of operation, plus promotion guidelines are all a part of the process.
Some indicators are predictors of success for the person which in turn means success for the company. Although the formula for success in terms of a group varies there are some overall guides. Coping strategies are crafted by the Acculturation Focus group mentioned before; meaning the I/O Psychologists and Human Resource Directors.
The Organizational structure crafted by them includes benefits, incentives, rewards, and both negative and positive reinforcements. Those compose the Internal Environment; along with the dress and the conduct code. The norms of the organization; the success bench marks, goals, and identifiers and the branding and uses of status markers, and images are all by design. The stratum progresses according to:
1. Technical proficiency is the ability to operate tools correctly for a task
2. Oral & written communications skills
3. Supervision & Leadership skills criteria
4. Large scale Selection & Classification study
5. Scientific study & theory for use as a knowledge vault
6. Predictors, indicators and constructs
7. Performance management objectives
The coping strategies include the External environment that affects the internal organizational culture. The I/O Psychologist helps to prevent potential liability to the company by creating a system of conduct that makes reasonable care a part of the culture. It also provides for counseling and emotional assistance to employees or members in distress either expressed or displayed by a schedule of professional evaluations and assessments.
Many external relationship issues have filtered into the workplace; and resulted in violence. Although not every incident can humanly be predicted or prevented; reasonable care includes integrating Security into the cultural plan.
Other steps include pre-employment personality and values assessment; background and drug testing. Those are as important as badge identifiers and locators; and security monitoring of the external and internal environs.
The U.S. Army (1982-1994) Research Institute and a Consortium of Private research firms conducted one of the largest organizational research projects that resulted in the “O*Net” which is the Occupational Information Network of people, data and things (equipment, etc.).
Organizational skeletons establish personnel selection, retention and advancement criteria and parameters.
In summary, personality, values, and attitudes determine the “Fit” of persons to organizations. These are inherent, learned, enforced, encouraged and reinforced behavioral patterns and constructs that determine and affect a culture and its effectiveness. No organization is any better than its people.
Organizations have personalities, and in some instances are considered as persons. Its image is paramount to its relationship with its External and Internal community. Trust is essential, personally and organizationally. Trust is built upon two precepts; consistency and integrity. Hence positive values, standards and culture mean a reliable, respectable and trustworthy organizational image.
Cascio, W. F., & Aguinis, H. (2005). Applied psychology in human resource management (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Jex, S. M. (2002). Organizational psychology: A scientist-practitioner approach. New York, NY: Wiley.
*Bartol, Anne M. & Curt R. (2008). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach (8th Ed.)
Upper saddle River, NJ: Pearson/ Prentice Hall.
*Eysenck, Hans J. (1977) page 97 & Megargee, E.I. (1982) [pgs.,315, 321, 325, 374, 612, 615, 630]
“Stepford Wives” refers to a film by Universal Studios. MGM; Hollywood, CA.
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