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Paraphrase Practice

Paraphrase Practice

 

A paraphrase restates something written by the original author without using the same words. It indicates the meaning of the text, but the wording and structure are different from the original. Keep in mind that a paraphrase must contain a citation because the ideas are taken from a source.

 

This material can help you become more familiar with correctly paraphrasing information from a source. Use the following guidelines when paraphrasing text:

 

·         Read the information from the source, then go to a new page on the computer or close the book as you begin recording the main ideas. (Any time you look back and forth from the source to the page you’re writing on, you risk inadvertently copying from the source.)

 

·         Use your own words to record what you believe the author said.

 

·         Add a citation. You may want to include a page or paragraph number for the paraphrase if the original work comes from a long text.  

 

·         Check the source when you’ve finished writing to be sure you have written the content in your own words.

 

Avoid plagiarism by using the above method to rewrite information from a source. To see an example, refer to “Understanding Paraphrase in the Plagiarism Guide. Then, return here to practice your paraphrasing skills using the following worksheet.

 

Plagiarism results if any of the following elements are present in your paraphrase:

 

·         Synonyms are substituted for some of the original words, but most of the other words remain the same.

·         Three or four words in a phrase from the source are used without quotation marks.

·         The citation is missing from your paraphrase. If no citation is used, the material is actually presented to the reader as your own idea.

 


 

Paraphrase Worksheet

 

Exercises 1 through 3 are from “Gettysburg Address” and 4–5 are from an academic source.

 

Test yourself to see how good you are at paraphrasing information from a source. Remember to follow the guidelines to prevent plagiarism. After writing your paraphrase, ask yourself the following questions, and make changes as necessary:

 

·         Did you use any of the same words that appear in the original?

·         Did you include a citation?

 

Paraphrase Exercise 1

 

Original work:

 

Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal” (Lincoln, 1863/2011, para. 1).

 

Your paraphrase:

     Eighty-seven years ago, this country came to be, on this continent, by our founding fathers; who strove to create a nation built upon the precepts of Freedom and Equality for all of its citizens. (Gettysburg Address: Lincoln 1863/2011 para. 1- paraphrased)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Possible paraphrase:

 

Sixty-seven years ago those who lived before us created a free country. The founders were committed that all people would have equal liberty (Lincoln, 1863/2011).

 

 

 


 

Paraphrase Exercise 2

 

Original work:

 

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. (Lincoln, 1863/2011, para. 2)

 

Your paraphrase:

 

 Now we find ourselves engaged in a great civil war, challenged as to whether our new country, or any other like this; so dedicated to principles of freedom; has sustainability.  Today, we have come together on a great battlefield of this War.  We are here, committed to the purpose of dedicating this place, as a final resting place, for those who gave their lives, to help our beloved nation to survive.  It is right and appropriate, that we should honor our patriots, and our country, in this way.  (Lincoln, 1863/2011, para.2: paraphrased)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Possible paraphrase:

 

Currently, on the battleground of this extensive conflict between the states, we are here to consecrate it as a burial place for the soldiers who died to preserve freedom for their country (Lincoln, 1863/2011).

 


 

Paraphrase Exercise 3

 

Original work:

 

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. (Lincoln, 1863/2011, para. 3)  

 

Your paraphrase:

 

Although we make this effort to give proper honor and respect to consecrate this hallowed ground today. We are much less able to express it exactly as it deserves.  It is the blood, sweat and tears of those that fought and died here that have honored it more than we ever could.  The hearers today will forget what we have said to honor them here, and those who will come to this place ever after; will fail to hear these words, yet they too will honor our intent and the sacrifice of their own precious blood upon this sacred ground.   Yet we must honor them, as best we can; because it was they who fought and died here, so that we and those after us may live in Freedom and Equality.  We cannot praise and honor their legacy of devotion, to God, country and their fellow man enough to overstate the full importance of what their service has meant to us, to the cause of freedom and to the strength of our resolve to make this the greatest country on God’s Earth. Because of them, this nation, dedicated to the proposition of Freedom, Justice and Equality was preserved; for us and for our posterity forever. In Justice and in Liberty, long may she reign as a shining beacon dedicated to Freedom for all mankind.  “ …We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. (Lincoln, 1863/2011, para. 3) [ paraphrased]

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Possible paraphrase:

 

We cannot revere this ground any more than those valiant soldiers who fought here did. Although no one will think about the speeches made here, everyone will keep in mind and honor the men who fought here, both those alive and those who died. The duty falls on us who have survived to complete the task that these respected soldiers fought for. We must continue the goal that all people should always be free (Lincoln, 1863/2011).


 

Paraphrase Exercise 4

 

Original work:

 

The emergence of the global economy, a recent surge in immigration, and the growing diversity of the U.S. population are transforming the business arena. For example, U.S. companies are creating more multilingual Web sites to expand their market, improve sales, and remain competitive. Dress codes are being revised to include headwear and other articles of clothing required by various religions. Companies are providing consumers with a greater array of products that reflect their diverse lifestyles and tastes. With an increase in white-collar service jobs, companies are paying more attention to cross-cultural interaction among workers and between workers and customers. (Bucher & Bucher, 2009, Chapter 1, Globalization and Technology, para. 3)

 

Your paraphrase:

 

The businesses of the United States of America, reflect the diversity of today’s Global Village.  We live and work as an integral part of the Global economy; acutely aware that we, and our world, have changed.  The World Wide Web has linked us; and brought people of all cultures, languages, ideologies and races to our desktop; just as it has to our doorstep.  Our website has become a welcome mat to the world, and designed to reflect that we affect many people, that may never once enter our establishment physically.

Our business culture reflects new standards of dress, to accommodate the codes and standards of diverse belief systems.  Our challenge is to prove that we can create a business attitude and intent toward homogeneity; congruence and mutual respect.  In order to conduct Global business effectively, efficiently, and profitably, minimizing the negatives that cause feelings of offense and maximizing the positive value of every human resource and potential. 

The Global marketplace is a thrilling proposition, and promises greater prosperity through networking to offer goods, services, and innovation to the far reaches of our World community.  Yes, not only is there a world full of people, there is a world full of consumers.  We can, and will bridge our differences to improve our business relationships, fulfilling needs, and improving fellowship with the world, from where we are right now.

We must acknowledge that even our social media presence has a butterfly effect on the world.  . (Bucher & Bucher, 2009, Chapter 1, Globalization and Technology, paragraph 3: para-phrased) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Possible paraphrase:

 

Changes being made in businesses in the United States are a result of the increasingly diverse workforce. Companies now take cultural background into consideration when implementing guidelines for employees, such as appropriate dress in the workplace. In marketing practices, companies are creating products and websites appropriate for multiple cultural audiences. These changes emphasize the effects of immigration in the United States and the importance of a global marketplace (Bucher & Bucher, 2009).

 

 


 

Paraphrase Exercise 5

 

Original work:

 

Miscommunication often results because we attach different meanings to the same symbol. As an example, a few years ago Nike marketed some of its products by displaying their logo, the word Air, in stylized letters. They soon discovered that the logo resembles the Arabic word for Allah. Under threat of a worldwide boycott of its product by Muslims, Nike agreed to recall and stop selling any shoes with this logo. Muslims found this logo to be offensive, especially when it appeared on shoes. By communicating a totally different message than they intended, Nike learned a costly and important lesson. (Bucher & Bucher, 2009, Chapter 1, Communication and Culture, para. 7)

 

Your paraphrase:

 

 In business a misunderstood word, and or intent can be costly, and a true public relations and marketing dilemma.  For example; Nike released what was a highly desirable “Air” line of shoes in America; and offended many Muslim potential customers because the “Swoosh” logo looked too much akin to their name for God; “Allah” in Arabic Script forms.  The public relations backlash and uproar changed the design for that demographic. Therefore, market research is very important before launching a new product in foreign markets; and more cost effective.  Luckily, only the “Swoosh” logo needed variation, and not the shoe design. Other companies may want to take notice and learn from Nike’s experience before selling goods and services in Arab markets.  All foreign consumers may not share American tastes; and may have cultural and religious restrictions on certain types of products. (Bucher & Bucher, 2009, Chapter 1, Communication and Culture, paragraph7: paraphrased.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Possible paraphrase:

 

The importance of understanding a multicultural audience was brought home by a recent experience Nike had in trying to sell shoes to a global consumer. Muslims were insulted because the swish used as the Nike symbol was eerily similar to the word Allah in Arabic. Because Nike did not recognize this cultural debacle, Muslims would not buy Nike products, particularly shoes. This faux pas in multicultural communication cost Nike money and created a negative image of the company in the Arab world (Bucher & Bucher, 2009).

 

 

 


 

References

 

Bucher, R. D. & Bucher, P. L. (2009). Diversity consciousness: Opening our minds to people, cultures, and opportunities (3rd ed.). Retrieved from the University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.

Lincoln, A. (2011, February). The Gettysburg address. Cobblestone, 32(1), 37. Retrieved from EBSCOhost database. (Original work published 1863)

 

 

 
Industrial-Organizational Psychology

DQ 1: Industrial & Organizational Psychology

Psych 700

Annette Phillips

Two quotes that define Industrial Psychology vs. Organizational Psychology are these:

"In the most general sense, organizational psychology is the scientific study of individual and group behavior in formal organizational settings." (Jex, Steve; Kahn & Kahn)

" Industrial / organizational psycholgy pertains to the application, methods and principles of psychology to the workplace." (Specter, 1999).

Yet in a more practical sense, every organization has its own culture; from the simplest form of the family to the complex form as the Corporation. the culture of the company or group is the evidence of the group and the leadership mindset. An old adage says this:" As the King, so is the people." That may be a Scriptural reference from the Bible, or just from the anonymous wise one.

We just don't know who the anonymous is, and that is how they are worthy of that description.

Historically, 1992 marked the hundred years of industrial and organizational psychology; as a science. However, Katzell and Austin (1992) noted:

"In the organizational field, perhaps the earliest recorded consultant was the Midianite priest, Jethro, who advised his son-in-law, Moses, on how to staff and organize the Israelites." (Exodus 18-page 803)

Reference

Jex, Steve: Organizational Psychology:A Scientist-Practioner. 2002: John Wiley & Sons, Publishing. NewYork.

 

 

Assignment 1: Research Question

Annette Buchanan-Phillips

10/07/2011

I/O Psych700: Dr. Marcos Carreras, Professor

Question:

I. Based on your reading, what are some of the organization development techniques, or interventions for bringing about change? II. What role does the Industrial/ Organizational Psychologist play in managing change in the organization?

Organizational Development Techniques or Interventions for bringing about Change

The "Open Systems" model captures the context in which certain behaviors occur, what precipitates them and the scope and parameters that shape them. In "Eysenck’s dichotomy, " Introversion indicates the effects of being overly controlled. The Extroversion is indicative of being under controlled. Both personality types are the result of restriction.

According to Magargee, "the limitations of over controlling, crosses the line into the extreme opposite in behaviors. Such "Mind Control" candidates like those exhibiting the effects of over and or under controlling restricted existence, or cultures; are primed for extreme pendulum swing behaviors.

I dubbed them: "the Terrorist Selective Service"; because the greater restrictive culture is directly proportional to the more extreme brutality in reactionary violence. They are the ones that snapped; who seemed so nice, and subdued. In other words, the overly controlled introvert is unlikely to react violently, unless the subject of long term provocation and torment has evoked such a snap of mind to exhibit an extreme violent reaction once. The ultimate extreme act of violence is usually without thought of the outcomes or the ever-after.

The change was constructed, and behavior elicited by design; with an organizational construct of negative reinforcements toward a specific target demographic. Industrial & Organizational Psychologists are in the position to screen these from the workplace; and hopefully assess to identify those at risk for sudden and extreme violence.

 

 

Interface of individuals to their Environments

The environment lends itself to assist individuals in their physical tasks, and learning required to perform job tasks. In the Hawthorne Effect experiments; variations in light intensity and brightness was measured in proportion to pieces and work output. Lights had an effect emotionally on the workers, as well. The variable lead to the Seasonal Affective Disorder diagnosis in which the lessening of sunlight hours contributes to a depressive reaction in some people. ( DSM- IV )

Assessments for aptitude, and cognitive ability can be mobility and retention indicators, with some companies. There is a five year predictive indicator amongst those who are motivated to succeed.

The three most important measures are values, personality and attitude; for selection and attrition and upward or lateral mobility. Skills enhancement efforts can raise the quality of the employees within an organization.

All of the aptitude, cognitive ability, and personality assessments come under the Industrial and Organizational Psychology techniques that shape Corporate-culture. Most branding, incentives, and selection tasks are determined by the scores gathered in tests, performance measures, and interviews. Emotional assistance and support counseling are also among the tools of the Industrial & Organizational Psychologists.

Person to Organization Fit Model

"Gustafson & Mumford; (1995) found that individual personality predicted job satisfaction and performance better when the type of job situation was taken into account supporting a Personal-Organizational fit interpretation."

The Person to Organization model suggests that a fit between an applicant’s personal characteristics, and attributes of the organization, contributes in important ways to individual performance and retention, as well as to organizational effectiveness.

Attraction, selection, and attrition model, (Schneider, 1987) utilizes learning theory; "similarities attract and attrition is the result of a gravitational hypothesis. Cognitive ability is directly proportional to upward mobility; and a five year predictor of mobility."

In Gough’s study (1957); "Aptitude, treatment, Interactions are relevant to a successful integration into a company’s culture.

"Aptitude represents individual differences, characteristics of people and treatment is broadly defined as situations, encountered by people, (job characteristics, working conditions, supervision, performance goals, etcetera). "

John Campbell (1999) argues that all interactions and Industrial & Organizational Psychology treatments revolve around the qualities of the people in the group. The more homogenous the group; the better the group will function. People who share similar values, attitudes and personalities will work well together. This phenomenon is called "homogeneity."

Yet no company wants to strive for a "Stepford Wife" staff, of cookie cutter employees, devoid of individuality. Instead, the effective fit is complementary differences. The most creativity is expressed as functional innovation of familiar systems and processes; that will enhance the group’s marketability and profits, in the employment situation.

That type of Corporate Identification; is the result of acculturation, branding, incentives, rewards, and mobility within the context of skills and achievement recognition. Behavioral restrictions are for cultural enhancement, but not stifling or rewarding negative values or images. Every positive reward benchmark is meant to inspire, and motivate while fostering the sense of belonging.

The Role of the Industrial & Organizational Psychologist in Managing Change

The Industrial & Organizational Psychologist helps to establish behavioral parameters for the company or group. The employee or member handbook of educational objectives and goals are the culmination of the work of the Human Resources Director and Industrial & Organizational Psychologists.

Industrial & Organizational Psychologists utilize learning and behavioral psychology theory to assess, predict, prevent and attribute a person to organizational fit. Selection criteria and methods, and methods of operation, plus promotion guidelines are all a part of the process.

Some indicators are predictors of success for the person which in turn means success for the company. Although the formula for success in terms of a group varies there are some overall guides. Coping strategies are crafted by the Acculturation Focus group mentioned before; meaning the I/O Psychologists and Human Resource Directors.

The Organizational structure crafted by them includes benefits, incentives, rewards, and both negative and positive reinforcements. Those compose the Internal Environment; along with the dress and the conduct code. The norms of the organization; the success bench marks, goals, and identifiers and the branding and uses of status markers, and images are all by design. The stratum progresses according to:

1. Technical proficiency is the ability to operate tools correctly for a task

2. Oral & written communications skills

3. Supervision & Leadership skills criteria

4. Large scale Selection & Classification study

5. Scientific study & theory for use as a knowledge vault

6. Predictors, indicators and constructs

7. Performance management objectives

The coping strategies include the External environment that affects the internal organizational culture. The I/O Psychologist helps to prevent potential liability to the company by creating a system of conduct that makes reasonable care a part of the culture. It also provides for counseling and emotional assistance to employees or members in distress either expressed or displayed by a schedule of professional evaluations and assessments.

Many external relationship issues have filtered into the workplace; and resulted in violence. Although not every incident can humanly be predicted or prevented; reasonable care includes integrating Security into the cultural plan.

Other steps include pre-employment personality and values assessment; background and drug testing. Those are as important as badge identifiers and locators; and security monitoring of the external and internal environs.

The U.S. Army (1982-1994) Research Institute and a Consortium of Private research firms conducted one of the largest organizational research projects that resulted in the "O*Net" which is the Occupational Information Network of people, data and things (equipment, etc.).

Organizational skeletons establish personnel selection, retention and advancement criteria and parameters.

In summary, personality, values, and attitudes determine the "Fit" of persons to organizations. These are inherent, learned, enforced, encouraged and reinforced behavioral patterns and constructs that determine and affect a culture and its effectiveness. No organization is any better than its people.

Organizations have personalities, and in some instances are considered as persons. Its image is paramount to its relationship with its External and Internal community. Trust is essential, personally and organizationally. Trust is built upon two precepts; consistency and integrity. Hence positive values, standards and culture mean a reliable, respectable and trustworthy organizational image.

References

Cascio, W. F., & Aguinis, H. (2005). Applied psychology in human resource management (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Jex, S. M. (2002). Organizational psychology: A scientist-practitioner approach. New York, NY: Wiley.

*Bartol, Anne M. & Curt R. (2008). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach (8th Ed.)

Upper saddle River, NJ: Pearson/ Prentice Hall.

*Eysenck, Hans J. (1977) page 97 & Megargee, E.I. (1982) [pgs.,315, 321, 325, 374, 612, 615, 630]

"Stepford Wives" refers to a film by Universal Studios. MGM; Hollywood, CA.

 

 
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From Event Host: Thank You, It Has Been a Privilege to Serve You !!!

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Cooke David

<dac531@hotmail.com>
Sun, Mar 27, 2011 at 12:28 AM
To: Annette Buchanan-Phillips <AMOSHansaResearch@gmail.com>
This message was sent to you by the host of the "Cleveland Office
Grand Opening - Jan. 11th 4:30 p.m. - 7:00 p.m" event for which
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Hello,

I just wanted to take the time to say it has been a privilege to serve the residents of Cuyahoga and Northeast OH since 2008! Thank you to all the Volunteer leaders, local Dem clubs, county Dem parties, elected officials, executive and central committee members, teachers, activists, doctors, nurses, unions, churches, Fire, Police, City workers, community organizations, Non-For-Profits and small businesses for sharing your spaces, homes, hearts and schedules with me, the Obama Campaign and Organizing for America to help our community and country make drastic steps forward. We have so many accomplishments and memories to share (more of both to come, too!) and even the smallest involvement has helped to make a significant difference to Win the Future…TOGETHER, but we are NOT finished showing the world that we are the Tip of the Spear and need your help.

Please share your experiences and ideas to keep our communities strong!

Currently, we are fighting some battles that could have a drastic effect on our community and those who serve them, as well as, the ability of our residents to vote w/out rigorous restrictions, to name a few.
 For more info or updates on how to help OfA inform and educate our residents and your networks to unite and mobilize our voice please e-mail warnerj@dnc.org or call 216.416.2017

Sincerely,

David Cooke
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To: Cooke David <dac531@hotmail.com>
Thank you for the opportunity.
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