A paraphrase restates something written by the original author without using the same words. It indicates the meaning of the text, but the wording and structure are different from the original. Keep in mind that a paraphrase must contain a citation because the ideas are taken from a source.
This material can help you become more familiar with correctly paraphrasing information from a source. Use the following guidelines when paraphrasing text:
· Read the information from the source, then go to a new page on the computer or close the book as you begin recording the main ideas. (Any time you look back and forth from the source to the page you’re writing on, you risk inadvertently copying from the source.)
· Use your own words to record what you believe the author said.
· Add a citation. You may want to include a page or paragraph number for the paraphrase if the original work comes from a long text.
· Check the source when you’ve finished writing to be sure you have written the content in your own words.
Avoid plagiarism by using the above method to rewrite information from a source. To see an example, refer to “Understanding Paraphrase” in the Plagiarism Guide. Then, return here to practice your paraphrasing skills using the following worksheet.
Plagiarism results if any of the following elements are present in your paraphrase:
· Synonyms are substituted for some of the original words, but most of the other words remain the same.
· Three or four words in a phrase from the source are used without quotation marks.
· The citation is missing from your paraphrase. If no citation is used, the material is actually presented to the reader as your own idea.
Exercises 1 through 3 are from “Gettysburg Address” and 4–5 are from an academic source.
Test yourself to see how good you are at paraphrasing information from a source. Remember to follow the guidelines to prevent plagiarism. After writing your paraphrase, ask yourself the following questions, and make changes as necessary:
· Did you use any of the same words that appear in the original?
· Did you include a citation?
Paraphrase Exercise 1
“Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal” (Lincoln, 1863/2011, para. 1).
Eighty-seven years ago, this country came to be, on this continent, by our founding fathers; who strove to create a nation built upon the precepts of Freedom and Equality for all of its citizens. (Gettysburg Address: Lincoln 1863/2011 para. 1- paraphrased)
Sixty-seven years ago those who lived before us created a free country. The founders were committed that all people would have equal liberty (Lincoln, 1863/2011).
Paraphrase Exercise 2
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. (Lincoln, 1863/2011, para. 2)
Now we find ourselves engaged in a great civil war, challenged as to whether our new country, or any other like this; so dedicated to principles of freedom; has sustainability. Today, we have come together on a great battlefield of this War. We are here, committed to the purpose of dedicating this place, as a final resting place, for those who gave their lives, to help our beloved nation to survive. It is right and appropriate, that we should honor our patriots, and our country, in this way. (Lincoln, 1863/2011, para.2: paraphrased)
Currently, on the battleground of this extensive conflict between the states, we are here to consecrate it as a burial place for the soldiers who died to preserve freedom for their country (Lincoln, 1863/2011).
Paraphrase Exercise 3
But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. (Lincoln, 1863/2011, para. 3)
Although we make this effort to give proper honor and respect to consecrate this hallowed ground today. We are much less able to express it exactly as it deserves. It is the blood, sweat and tears of those that fought and died here that have honored it more than we ever could. The hearers today will forget what we have said to honor them here, and those who will come to this place ever after; will fail to hear these words, yet they too will honor our intent and the sacrifice of their own precious blood upon this sacred ground. Yet we must honor them, as best we can; because it was they who fought and died here, so that we and those after us may live in Freedom and Equality. We cannot praise and honor their legacy of devotion, to God, country and their fellow man enough to overstate the full importance of what their service has meant to us, to the cause of freedom and to the strength of our resolve to make this the greatest country on God’s Earth. Because of them, this nation, dedicated to the proposition of Freedom, Justice and Equality was preserved; for us and for our posterity forever. In Justice and in Liberty, long may she reign as a shining beacon dedicated to Freedom for all mankind. “ …We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. (Lincoln, 1863/2011, para. 3) [ paraphrased]
We cannot revere this ground any more than those valiant soldiers who fought here did. Although no one will think about the speeches made here, everyone will keep in mind and honor the men who fought here, both those alive and those who died. The duty falls on us who have survived to complete the task that these respected soldiers fought for. We must continue the goal that all people should always be free (Lincoln, 1863/2011).
Paraphrase Exercise 4
The emergence of the global economy, a recent surge in immigration, and the growing diversity of the U.S. population are transforming the business arena. For example, U.S. companies are creating more multilingual Web sites to expand their market, improve sales, and remain competitive. Dress codes are being revised to include headwear and other articles of clothing required by various religions. Companies are providing consumers with a greater array of products that reflect their diverse lifestyles and tastes. With an increase in white-collar service jobs, companies are paying more attention to cross-cultural interaction among workers and between workers and customers. (Bucher & Bucher, 2009, Chapter 1, Globalization and Technology, para. 3)
The businesses of the United States of America, reflect the diversity of today’s Global Village. We live and work as an integral part of the Global economy; acutely aware that we, and our world, have changed. The World Wide Web has linked us; and brought people of all cultures, languages, ideologies and races to our desktop; just as it has to our doorstep. Our website has become a welcome mat to the world, and designed to reflect that we affect many people, that may never once enter our establishment physically.
Our business culture reflects new standards of dress, to accommodate the codes and standards of diverse belief systems. Our challenge is to prove that we can create a business attitude and intent toward homogeneity; congruence and mutual respect. In order to conduct Global business effectively, efficiently, and profitably, minimizing the negatives that cause feelings of offense and maximizing the positive value of every human resource and potential.
The Global marketplace is a thrilling proposition, and promises greater prosperity through networking to offer goods, services, and innovation to the far reaches of our World community. Yes, not only is there a world full of people, there is a world full of consumers. We can, and will bridge our differences to improve our business relationships, fulfilling needs, and improving fellowship with the world, from where we are right now.
We must acknowledge that even our social media presence has a butterfly effect on the world. . (Bucher & Bucher, 2009, Chapter 1, Globalization and Technology, paragraph 3: para-phrased)
Changes being made in businesses in the United States are a result of the increasingly diverse workforce. Companies now take cultural background into consideration when implementing guidelines for employees, such as appropriate dress in the workplace. In marketing practices, companies are creating products and websites appropriate for multiple cultural audiences. These changes emphasize the effects of immigration in the United States and the importance of a global marketplace (Bucher & Bucher, 2009).
Paraphrase Exercise 5
Miscommunication often results because we attach different meanings to the same symbol. As an example, a few years ago Nike marketed some of its products by displaying their logo, the word Air, in stylized letters. They soon discovered that the logo resembles the Arabic word for Allah. Under threat of a worldwide boycott of its product by Muslims, Nike agreed to recall and stop selling any shoes with this logo. Muslims found this logo to be offensive, especially when it appeared on shoes. By communicating a totally different message than they intended, Nike learned a costly and important lesson. (Bucher & Bucher, 2009, Chapter 1, Communication and Culture, para. 7)
In business a misunderstood word, and or intent can be costly, and a true public relations and marketing dilemma. For example; Nike released what was a highly desirable “Air” line of shoes in America; and offended many Muslim potential customers because the “Swoosh” logo looked too much akin to their name for God; “Allah” in Arabic Script forms. The public relations backlash and uproar changed the design for that demographic. Therefore, market research is very important before launching a new product in foreign markets; and more cost effective. Luckily, only the “Swoosh” logo needed variation, and not the shoe design. Other companies may want to take notice and learn from Nike’s experience before selling goods and services in Arab markets. All foreign consumers may not share American tastes; and may have cultural and religious restrictions on certain types of products. (Bucher & Bucher, 2009, Chapter 1, Communication and Culture, paragraph7: paraphrased.)
The importance of understanding a multicultural audience was brought home by a recent experience Nike had in trying to sell shoes to a global consumer. Muslims were insulted because the swish used as the Nike symbol was eerily similar to the word Allah in Arabic. Because Nike did not recognize this cultural debacle, Muslims would not buy Nike products, particularly shoes. This faux pas in multicultural communication cost Nike money and created a negative image of the company in the Arab world (Bucher & Bucher, 2009).
Bucher, R. D. & Bucher, P. L. (2009). Diversity consciousness: Opening our minds to people, cultures, and opportunities (3rd ed.). Retrieved from the University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.
Lincoln, A. (2011, February). The Gettysburg address. Cobblestone, 32(1), 37. Retrieved from EBSCOhost database. (Original work published 1863)